22 interesting facts about European honey bees


The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is one of the most widely recognized and important species of bees. Here are 22 interesting facts about European honey bees:

  1. Global distribution: European honey bees are found on every continent except Antarctica, primarily due to human introduction for agriculture and honey production.
  2. Pollination role: They are crucial pollinators for many crops, contributing to the production of fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds.
  3. Honey production: European honey bees are renowned for their ability to produce large quantities of honey, which humans harvest for consumption and commercial use.
  4. Social structure: They live in highly organized colonies with a clear division of labor among the queen, workers, and drones.
  5. Queen bee: The queen is the only fertile female in the hive, responsible for laying eggs and maintaining the colony’s population.
  6. Worker bees: Worker bees are sterile females that perform various tasks, including foraging for nectar and pollen, caring for the brood, and defending the hive.
  7. Drones: Drones are male bees whose primary role is to mate with a queen from another colony. They do not have stingers and do not participate in foraging or hive maintenance.
  8. Communication: They use a “waggle dance” to communicate the location of food sources to other foragers, indicating direction and distance.
  9. Nest construction: European honey bees build their nests using wax produced by worker bees. The wax is formed into hexagonal cells that make up the honeycomb.
  10. Temperature regulation: They maintain a constant hive temperature of about 93°F (34°C) to ensure optimal conditions for brood development.
  11. Swarming: Swarming is a natural process where a portion of the colony, along with a new queen, leaves the hive to establish a new colony.
  12. Lifespan: Worker bees live for about 5-7 weeks during the active season and up to several months during the winter. Queens can live for 2-5 years, while drones typically live only a few weeks.
  13. Foraging range: They can forage up to 5 miles (8 kilometers) from their hive, although they typically stay within a 1-2 mile (1.6-3.2 kilometers) radius.
  14. Diet: Their diet consists mainly of nectar and pollen, which provide carbohydrates and protein, respectively. They also produce and consume royal jelly and propolis.
  15. Honeycomb geometry: The hexagonal shape of honeycomb cells is a highly efficient structure, maximizing storage space while using the least amount of wax.
  16. Seasonal behavior: During winter, they form a cluster to generate and retain heat, reducing their activity and relying on stored honey for sustenance.
  17. Varroa destructor: European honey bees are susceptible to the Varroa mite, a significant pest that weakens colonies and spreads diseases.
  18. Colony collapse disorder (CCD): They have been affected by CCD, a phenomenon where worker bees abruptly disappear, leading to the collapse of the colony.
  19. Defensive behavior: While generally not aggressive, they will defend their hive by stinging perceived threats. Worker bees can sting only once, as their stinger is barbed and detaches upon use.
  20. Queen pheromones: The queen produces pheromones that regulate the behavior and functioning of the colony, including inhibiting the development of new queens.
  21. Brood development: The developmental stages from egg to adult include the egg, larva, pupa, and adult, with the entire process taking about 21 days for workers.
  22. Genetic diversity: European honey bees have numerous subspecies, each adapted to different climates and environments, such as the Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica) and the Carniolan bee (Apis mellifera carnica).

These facts illustrate the complexity, importance, and fascinating nature of European honey bees, highlighting their role in ecosystems and human agriculture.